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 投稿日時: 2019-07-12 14:57:30 (264 ヒット)
EES

The Environmental Earth Science Seminar will be held as follows.

Location: D101 in GSES
Date and Time: 16:30-18:00 on July 18th (Thu)
Speaker: Marc Abrams (Department of Ecosystem Science and Management Penn State University)

Title: The impact of global change on tree species growth and dominance in the eastern U.S.

Abstract: Global change processes, including climate and natural and anthropogenic (land-use) disturbances have profoundly impacted tree dominance and growth rates worldwide.  To help decipher the relative importance of various drivers of forest change tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data.  We examined changes during the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to present), which spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age and the Anthropocene. We found that most tree species and age classes exhibited increasing basal area increment (BAI) and/or ring width index (RWI) in recent years.  This is particularly unusual for trees in the older age classes that we expected to have declining growth in the latter years, as predicted by physiological growth models.  There exists an inverse relationship between growth rate and increasing age class.  The oldest trees within each species have consistently slow growth throughout their lives, implying an inverse relationship between growth rate and longevity. Younger trees (< 60 years of age) within each species are consistently growing faster than the older trees when they were the same age resulting from a higher proportion of fast-growing trees in these young age classes. In contrast, changes in tree dominance were not highly consistent with warming. Instead, post-European settlement disturbance regimes mostly overrode climate signals across the eastern US. In the north, intensive and expansive disturbances resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and a large increase in Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus. Mid-twentieth century fire suppression led to large increases in Acer in the latter case, often leading to significant warm-to-cool shifts in temperature class. These series of studies helped elucidate the wide spread and profound impacts of global change on trees and delivered some unexpected results. The reasons for increasing tree growth in the study region and the main drivers of forest change will be discussed, including the climate-disturbance debate.

If you have any question regarding this seminar, please feel free to contact Shiro Tsuyuzaki (tsuyu@ees.hokudai.ac.jp).

Thank you for reading.
See you in D101 by 16:30 on July 18th (Thu).
Best,
ST

 


 投稿日時: 2019-07-11 14:14:36 (76 ヒット)
EES

EESセミナーのご案内

下記の通りEESセミナーを開催します。奮ってご参加ください。

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第一部は植物の形質転換に用いられるアグロバクテリウム属細菌に関する話題

第二部はニューヨークの地下鉄から土壌までの細菌叢の分布に関する話題

となっています。午前と午後の開催となりますが、多数参集頂けると幸いです。

<< Part 1 >>

Speaker:

Dr. Theodore Muth (Brooklyn College, City University of New York)

 

Title:

Agrobacterium tumefaciens Attachment and T-DNA Integration - understanding the “root” to infection of host plants

 

Summary:

While several aspects of A. tumefaciens infection and transformation of plants are well understood, there are questions that remain concerning the attachment of the bacteria to host plants and the integration of T- DNA into the host cell genome. Work from our lab has focused on these questions and has applied novel approaches in an attempt to gain a more thorough understanding of these steps in the infection.

The standard approach to genetically modify plants relies on Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer foreign DNA (T-DNA) into plant cells where it can become a permanent part of the plant cell’s genome and express engineered traits. While A. tumefaciens transformation of plants has been used extensively, there are aspects of the process that are incompletely understood. To study the timing and factors influencing the location of T-DNA insertions, we used a modified adapter ligation- mediated PCR strategy, coupled with next generation sequencing, to identify T-DNA integration sites into the genome of Arabidopsis.

Previous reports examining T-DNA integration have relied on selective conditions, floral dip transformation, artificial virulence induction or use of cultured suspension plant cells. Our approach attempts to closely match natural infection conditions by using cut Arabidopsis root segments infected with uninduced A. tumefaciens and no selection for T- DNA integration events. A more thorough understanding of T-DNA integration will guide future experiments to develop the techniques to engineer plants more efficiently than is currently possible.

 

Date/Time & Venue:

2019年7月25日(木)10:00 - 11:00

地球環境科学研究院 管理棟2階会議室

10:00-11:00, 25th July, 2019

Graduate School of Environmental Science, Room E206

 

世話人:三輪

 

<< Part 2>>

Speaker:

Dr. Theodore Muth (Brooklyn College, City University of New York)

 

Title:

The Urban Microbiome ? a new census of the city

Abstract:

Our recent work using culture-independent (metagenomic) based strategies to study microbial communities shows an unexpectedly high level of biodiversity in urban microbiomes in a number of sites including parks, waterways, subway systems, and green infrastructure installations. The factors underlying the establishment of these diverse communities are not well understood, but it suggests that urban microbial communities represent a significant unknown element of phylogenetic, genetic, and functional biodiversity. A better understanding of these influences on multiple aspects of biodiversity will inform the design, construction, placement, and maintenance of urban environmental elements (such as green infrastructure) to maximize their ecosystem services.  More fundamentally, our work offers a novel platform for exploration of basic science aspects of dimensions of biodiversity.

 

Date/Time & Venue:

2019年7月25日(木)16:00 - 17:00

地球環境科学研究院 管理棟2階会議室

16:00-17:00, 25th July, 2019

Graduate School of Environmental Science, Room E206

 

世話人:森川


 投稿日時: 2019-06-04 09:28:24 (460 ヒット)
Special Grant

Special Grant Program for International Students / Research Assistant Program of Graduate School of Environmental Science (October 2019)

This program will select students, who can likely contribute internationally in their research field, from those students applying to doctoral courses of Graduate School of Environmental Science.


It is very meaningful to participate in research as a Research Assistant (RA) for the development of your research ability. Each Research Assistant must serve to achieve the objective of a research subject directed by a faculty member of the Graduate School of Environmental Science. The research subjects are listed below.

 

Period

Maximum 3 years since the first year although the achievement of the objective must be evaluated each year by the committee of the faculty.

 

Qualifications of application (Eligibility):

Students (mainly from developing countries) who are going to seek admission to the doctor courses of Graduate School of Environmental Science.

 

Payment Exemption / RA Allowance:

Payment Exemption: Total amount of school fees are entirely covered by Hokkaido University (i.e., entrance exam fee of 30,000 yen, admission fee of 282,000 yen, and annual tuition fee of 535,800 yen for each of three years). RA Allowance (depending on the actual working time): Total: 3 million yen (1 million yen for each of three years)
Travel expenses of entrance exam should be paid by applicant.

 

Application Period

Until June 21 Friday, 2019

 

Application for the program:

Applicants are required to submit the documents listed below. The documents should not be written in a language other than English.

  1. Curriculum vitae with the applicant's photograph
  2. Academic transcript
  3. Graduation certificate
  4. List of publications and presentations in scientific meetings
  5. Research proposal
  6. Direction and comments of potential supervisor and at least one co-supervisor, including proofs of communication between you and the potential supervisors
  7. Master's thesis or other documents in proof of your research ability

 

Reference and address to apply

Kyoumu-Tantou
Graduate School of Environmental Science
Hokkaido University
Kita 10, Nishi 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0810 Japan
E-mail: kyomu (at) ees.hokudai.ac.jp

 

List of possible research subjects (2019)

Title: Biologically active compounds from cyanobacteria
Professor: Tatsufumi Okino
 

Cyanobacteria are rich source of secondary metabolites. We aim at isolation, structure elucidation, biological activity evaluation and biosynthesis of cyanobacterial metabolites. Especially we are interested in secondary metabolites which could be synthesized by silent genes. We are seeking for a new method to express silent genes of biosynthetic enzymes.
 
Title: Development of novel synthetic methodology toward total synthesis of natural product
Associate Professor: Taiki Umezawa
 

Natural products including halogen atoms are often found in land and marine organisms, and have unique biological activities. Supply of these natural products is required toward further biological studies for human health and environmental material because of trace amount from the natural sources. To synthesize the halogen-containing compounds, effective synthetic methodologies, especially for halohydrin functionality, are limited. Prior to the synthesis of the natural product, the development of new method for the halohydrin functionality has been planned.
 
Title: Preparation of heterojunction nanomaterials and their applications to light amplification and chemical reactions
Professor: Biju Vasudevan Pillai
 

Environmental pollution and global warming by greenhouse gases and other chemicals released by certain industries and automobiles are serious problems facing humanity. These problems are directly related to our ever-increasing energy needs. Therefore, the construction of systems that efficiently produce green and clean energy is an important challenge in science and technology today. Aim of this project is to develop novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanomaterials for the control of photogenerated charge carriers and excitons and carrying out energy efficient chemical reactions. Such nanomaterials are expected to become primary components of solar energy harvesting and conversion systems. Successful candidates should have sound knowledge on materials chemistry, physical chemistry and electronic spectroscopy.
 
Title: Preparation of defect-free semiconductor nanomaterials with efficient and stable photoluminescence
Professor: Biju Vasudevan Pillai
 

Environmental pollution and global warming by greenhouse gases and other chemicals released by certain industries and automobiles are serious problems facing humanity. These problems are directly related to our ever-increasing energy needs. Therefore, the construction of energy efficient devices such as LEDs and solar cells is an important challenge in basic science and industry. Aim of this project is to develop novel luminescent semiconductor nanomaterials and modify their surfaces with molecular systems, which is for minimizing atomic and electronic defects. Such luminescent nanomaterials are expected to become parts of future LEDs and solar cells. Successful candidates should have sound knowledge on organic and inorganic chemical reactions and electronic spectroscopy.
 
Title: Fundamental study on photocatalytic environmental decontamination
Professor: Bunsho Ohtani
 

Photocatalytic reactions driven by photoirradiated semiconducting materials such as titanium(IV) oxide can be applied to solar-energy conversion and decomposition of environmental contaminants in air and/or water. For the latter, practical application has been successfully performed from the standpoint of engineering. This study aims at clarifying the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic decontamination reaction from the standpoint of their thermodynamics and kinetics.
 

 投稿日時: 2019-04-26 16:36:50 (557 ヒット)
EES
Guidelines for applicants Master’s andDoctoral Courses have been updated. http://www.ees.hokudai.ac.jp/modules/top/entrance2.html

 投稿日時: 2019-04-26 10:08:06 (712 ヒット)
EES

今回のEESセミナーでは、新任の先生お二人にご講演いただきます。どなたでもご参加いただけます。様々な見地から幅広い議論をいただけましたらありがたく思います。

日時:2019年5月9日(木)18:15-19:45
場所:北海道大学大学院地球環境科学研究院D棟D201


講演題目1:哺乳類の味覚と腸内細菌の進化 〜チンパンジーとコアラを追いかけて〜
講演者:早川卓志(環境生物科学部門 生態遺伝学分野 助教)

要旨:
動物は種それぞれに固有の食物に適応している。それは環境から適切な食物を選び出す感覚能力と、それを消化して栄養にする生理機構を持ってるからだ。ゲノム・メタゲノム解析の手法によって、それぞれの動物は種固有の採食様式に最適化された味覚や腸内細菌を持つことが近年わかってきた。演者は、ヒトやチンパンジーを含む植物食に依存した霊長類の祖先で、苦味受容体遺伝子の個数がゲノム中で増加し、植物に含まれている毒の認識に寄与しているようだというということを発見した。苦味感覚適応が野生集団でどのような行動として発現しているかを知るために、野生チンパンジーを対象とした調査もおこなっている。味覚によって適切な食物を選択したあとは、適切に消化して栄養を吸収し、排泄しなくてはいけない。霊長類の糞便に含まれている細菌を次世代シークエンサーによって網羅的に調べるメタゲノム解析によって、採食品目の違いによる適応が生じていることが明らかになった。霊長類から外に目を向けたところ、樹上のユーカリの葉に強く依存しているコアラも、植物食霊長類と同様に苦味受容体遺伝子数が増加しており、適切なユーカリの葉を選択するように進化していることが示唆された。樹上性哺乳類が暮らす森で動物を追いかけて、採食生態に注目してゲノム・メタゲノムを解析する研究を確立していきたい。


講演題目2:生物多様性の見えざる脅威:騒音に対する生き物の応答とその帰結
講演者:先崎理之(環境生物科学部門 生態保全学分野 助教)

要旨:
全球レベルで進行する生物多様性の喪失の抑制は、人類共通の喫緊の課題である。従来、生物多様性喪失の主要因として、気候変動や生息地の分断化等の土地利用変化が注目されてきた。しかし近年、陸海双方に蔓延する騒音汚染の深刻な現状が明らかになり、生物多様性への騒音の影響が懸念され始めてきた。本講演では、騒音に対する動物の応答を、行動から群集レベルに至るまで調べてきた演者の研究を紹介し、生物多様性への騒音の影響の帰結を考える。なお、本講演では、カエルや鳥といった脊椎動物のみならずバッタやトンボといった無脊椎動物に関する話題も扱う。学生を含む様々な生物に興味を持つ方々の聴講を歓迎したい。


連絡先:北海道大学大学院地球環境科学研究院 生態遺伝学分野 越川滋行
koshi*ees.hokudai.ac.jp(*を半角@に変えてご入力ください)

 


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Graduate School of Environmental Sceince, Hokkaido University